Read the following text. Choose the best word (s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
Trust is a tricky business. On the one hand, it's a necessary condition 1 many worthwhile things: child care, friendships, etc. On the other hand, putting your 2, in the wrong place often carries a high 3.
4, why do we trust at all? Well, because it feels good. 5 people place their trust in an inPial or an institution, their brains release oxytocin, a hormone that 6 pleasurable feelings and triggers the herding instruct that prompts humans to 7 with one another. Scientists have found that exposure 8 this hormone puts us in a trusting 9: In a Swiss study, researchers sprayed oxytocin into the noses of half the subjects; those subjects were ready to lend significantly higher amounts of money to strangers than were their 10 who inhaled something else.
11 for us, we also have a sixth sense for dishonesty that may 12 us. A Canadian study found that children as young as 14 months can differentiate 13 a credible person and a dishonest one. Sixty toddlers were each 14 to an alt tester holding a plastic container. The tester would ask, “What’s in here?” before looking into the container, smiling, and exclaiming, “Wow!” Each subject was then invited to look 15. Half of them found a toy; the other half 16 the container was empty-and realized the tester had 17 them.
Among the children who had not been tricked, the majority were 18 to cooperate with the tester in learning a new skill, demonstrating that they trusted his leadership. 19, only five of the 30 children paired with the “20”tester participated in a follow-up activity.
1. [A] on [B] like [C] for [D] from
2. [A] faith [B] concern [C] attention [D] interest
3. [A] benefit [B] debt [C] hope [D] price
4. [A] Therefore [B] Then [C] Instead [D] Again
5. [A]Until [B] Unless [C] Although [D] When
6. [A] selects [B] proces [C] applies [D] maintains
7. [A] consult [B] compete [C] connect [D] compare
8. [A] at [B] by [C]of [D]to
9. [A] context [B] mood [C] period [D] circle
10.[A] counterparts [B] substitutes [C] colleagues [D]supporters
11.[A] Funny [B] Lucky [C] Odd [D] Ironic
12.[A] monitor [B] protect [C] surprise [D] delight
13.[A] between [B] within [C] toward [D] over
14.[A] transferred [B] added [C] introced [D] entrusted
15.[A] out [B] back [C] around [D] inside
16.[A] discovered [B] proved [C] insisted [D] .remembered
17.[A] betrayed [B]wronged [C] fooled [D] mocked
18.[A] forced [B] willing [C] hesitant [D] entitled
19.[A] In contrast [B] As a result [C] On the whole [D] For instance
20.[A] inflexible [B] incapable [C] unreliable [D] unsuitable
Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark [A], [B], [C] or [D] on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
Though not biologically related, friends are as "related" as fourth cousins, sharing about 1% of genes. That is 1 a study published from the University of California and Yale University in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, has 2 .
The study is a genome-wide analysis concted 3 1932 unique subjects which 4 pairs of unrelated friends and unrelated strangers. The same people were used in both 5 .While 1% may seem 6 , it is not so to a geneticist. As James Fowler, professor of medical genetics at UC San Diego, says, "Most people do not even 7 their fourth cousins but somehow manage to select as friends the people who 8 our kin."
The study 9 found that the genes for smell were something shared in friends but not genes for immunity. Why this similarity in olfactory genes is difficult to explain, for now. 10 Perhaps, as the team suggests, it draws us to similar environments but there is more 11 it. There could be many mechanisms working in tandem that 12 us in choosing genetically similar friends 13 than "functional kinship" of being friends with 14 !One of the remarkable findings of the study was that the similar genes seem to be evolving 15 than other genes. Studying this could help 16 why human evolution picked pace in the last 30,000 years, with social environment being a major 17 factor.
The findings do not simply corroborate people's 18 to befriend those of similar 19 backgrounds, say the researchers. Though all the subjects were drawn from a population of European extraction, care was taken to 20 that all subjects, friends and strangers were taken from the same population. The team also controlled the data to check ancestry of subjects.
Section II Reading Comprehension?
Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark [A]， [B]， [C] or [D] on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle viewed laughter as “a bodily exercise precious to health.” But __1___some claims to the contrary， laughing probably has little influence on physical fitness Laughter does __2___short-term changes in the function of the heart and its blood vessels， ___3_ heart rate and oxygen consumption But because hard laughter is difficult to __4__， a good laugh is unlikely to have __5___ benefits the way， say， walking or jogging does.
__6__， instead of straining muscles to build them， as exercise does， laughter apparently accomplishes the __7__， studies dating back to the 1930‘s indicate that laughter__8___ muscles， decreasing muscle tone for up to 45 minutes after the laugh dies down.
Such bodily reaction might conceivably help _9__the effects of psychological stress. Anyway， the act of laughing probably does proce other types of ___10___ feedback， that improve an inPial‘s emotional state. __11____one classical theory of emotion， our feelings are partially rooted ____12___ physical reactions. It was argued at the end of the 19th century that humans do not cry ___13___they are sad but they become sad when the tears begin to flow.
Although sadness also ____14___ tears， evidence suggests that emotions can flow __15___ muscular responses. In an experiment published in 1988，social psychologist Fritz Strack of the University of würzburg in Germany asked volunteers to __16___ a pen either with their teeth-thereby creating an artificial smile – or with their lips， which would proce a(n) __17___ expression. Those forced to exercise their enthusiastically to funny catoons than did those whose months were contracted in a frown， ____19___ that expressions may influence emotions rather than just the other way around __20__ ， the physical act of laughter could improve mood.
1.[A]among [B]except [C]despite [D]like
2.[A]reflect [B]demand [C]indicate [D]proce
3.[A]stabilizing [B]boosting [C]impairing [D]determining
4.[A]transmit [B]sustain [C]evaluate [D]observe
5.[A]measurable [B]manageable [C]affordable [D]renewable
6.[A]In turn [B]In fact [C]In addition [D]In brief
7.[A]opposite [B]impossible [C]average [D]expected
8.[A]hardens [B]weakens [C]tightens [D]relaxes
9.[A]aggravate [B]generate [C]moderate [D]enhance
10.[A]physical [B]mental [C]subconscious [D]internal
11.[A]Except for [B]According to [C]Due to [D]As for
12.[A]with [B]on [C]in [D]at
13.[A]unless [B]until [C]if [D]because
14.[A]exhausts [B]follows [C]precedes [D]suppresses
15.[A]into [B]from [C]towards [D]beyond
16.[A]fetch [B]bite [C]pick [D]hold
17.[A]disappointed [B]excited [C]joyful [D]indifferent
18.[A]adapted [B]catered [C]turned [D]reacted
19.[A]suggesting [B]requiring [C]mentioning [D]supposing
20.[A]Eventually [B]Consequently [C]Similarly [D]Conversely
Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
People are, on the whole, poor at considering background information when making inPial decisions. At first glance this might seem like a strength that 1 the ability to make judgments which are unbiased by 2 factors. But Dr. Uri Simonsohn speculated that an inability to consider the big 3 was leading decision-makers to be biased by the daily samles of information they were working with. 4 , he theorised that a judge 5 of apperaring too soft 6 crime might be more likely to send someone to prison 7 he had already sentenced five or six other defendants only to forced community service on that day.
To 8 this idea, he turned to the university-admissions process. In theory, the 9 of an applicant should not depend on the few others 10 randomly for interview ring the same day, but Dr. Simonsoho suspected the truth was 11 .
He studied the results of 9,323 MBA interviews 12 by 31 admissions officers. The interviewers had 13 applicants on a scale of one to five. This scale 14 numerous factors into consideration. The scores were 15 used in conjunction with an applicant’s score on the Granate Managent Adimssion Test, or GMAT, a standardized exam which is 16 out of 800 points, to make a decision on whether to accept him or her.
Dr. Simonsoho found if the score of the previous candidate in a daily series of interviewees was 0.75 points or more higher than that of the one 17 that, then the score for the next applicant would 18 by an average of 0.075 points. This might sound small, but to 19 the effects of such a decrease a candidate could need 30 more GMAT points than would otherwise have been 20 .
1. [A] grants [B]submits [C]transmits [D]delivers
2. [A] minor [B]objective [C]crucial [D] external
3. [A] issue [B]vision [C]picture [D]external
4. [A] For example [B] On average [C]In principle [D]Above all
5. [A] fond [B] fearful [C]capable [D] thoughtless
6. [A] in [B] on [C] to [D] for
7. [A] if [B] until [C] though [D] unless
8. [A] promote [B] emphasize [C] share [D]success
9. [A] decision [B] quality [C] status [D] success
10. [A] chosen [B] studied [C] found [D] identified
11. [A] exceptional [B] defensible [C] replaceable [D] otherwise
12. [A] inspired [B] expressed [C] concted [D] secured
13. [A] assigned [B] rated [C] matched [D] arranged
14. [A] put [B] got [C] gave [D] took
15. [A] instead [B] then [C] ever [D] rather
16. [A] selected [B] passed [C] marked [D] introced
17. [A] before [B] after [C] above [D] below
18. [A] jump [B] float [C] drop [D] fluctuate
19. [A] achieve [B] undo [C] maintain [D] disregard
20. [A] promising [B] possible [C] necessary [D] helpful